This course provides a basic foundation for the core principles of cardiovascular sonography along with the recognition of normal cardiovascular anatomy. This course will provide detailed understanding and assessment of systolic and diastolic function, including LV measurements and assessment of ejection fraction, fractional shortening, stroke volume, and cardiac output. Critical Thinking will be emphasized using the Sonographic Reasoning Method to evaluate normal measurements, normal structures, normal anatomy and physiology with case study evaluations. Concentrated areas of study will include cardiac embryology, walls and layers of the heart, cardiac conduction cycles, pressure gradients and cardiac valves and chambers. Additionally, this course discusses the application and techniques of 2D cardiac imaging, basic protocols and introduction of M-mode of the heart. DCS 313L will provide the laboratory application of techniques studied in DCS313.